Li Lithium – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

3
Li
Lithium

Lithium

Element 3 of Periodic table is Lithium with atomic number 3, atomic weight 6.941. Lithium, symbol Li, has a Body Centered Cubic structure and Silver color. Lithium is a alkali metal element. Trivial name of Lithium is alkali metals*. Know everything about Lithium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

3 Li - Lithium | SchoolMyKids

Lithium (from Greek:λίθος lithos, "stone") is a chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silver-white metal belonging to the alkali metal group of chemical elements. Under standard conditions it is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element.

How to Locate Lithium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 3 to find Lithium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Lithium on periodic table look for cross section of group 1 and period 2 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Lithium History

The element Lithium was discovered by Johan August Arfwedson in year 1817 in Sweden . Lithium derived its name the Greek word lithos, meaning 'stone'

Lithium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Lithium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 6×10-7%
Abundance in Sun 6×10-9%
Abundance in Meteorites 1.7e-06
Abundance in Earth's Crust 1.7e-05
Abundance in Oceans 1.8e-07
Abundance in Humans 3×10-6%

Crystal Structure of Lithium

The solid state structure of Lithium is Body Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
351 351 351 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name Im_ 3m 3 Li Lithium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 229
Crystal Structure Body Centered Cubic

Lithium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Lithium atoms have 3 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 1] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2.

Atomic Number 3
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 3
Number of Protons 3
Mass Number 7
Number of Neutrons 4
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 1]
Electron Configuration [He] 2s1
Valence Electrons 2s1
Oxidation State 1
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2

Shell Structure of Lithium - Electrons per energy level

3 Li Lithium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 1

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Lithium - neutral Lithium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Lithium atom is [He] 2s1. The portion of Lithium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [He]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 2s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Lithium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Lithium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s1

Atomic Structure of Lithium

Lithium atomic radius is 167 pm, while it's covalent radius is 134 pm.

Atomic Radius

167 pm (1.67 Å)

Atomic Volume 12.9738317757 cm3
Covalent Radius 134 pm (1.34 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 182 pm
Neutron Cross Section 0.045 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Lithium

Atomic Spectrum of Lithium | SchoolMyKids

Lithium Chemical Properties: Lithium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Lithium is 59.6 kJ/mol

Valence 1
Electronegativity 0.98
ElectronAffinity 59.6 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Lithium

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Lithium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 520.2
2 7298.1
3 11815

Lithium Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Lithium Physical Properties

Density 0.535 g/cm3
Molar Volume 12.9738317757 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 4.9 GPa
Shear Modulus 4.2 GPa
Bulk Modulus 11 GPa
Poisson Ratio N/A

Hardness of Lithium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 0.6 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness N/A

Lithium Electrical Properties

Lithium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Lithium

Electrical Conductivity 1.1×107 S/m
Resistivity 9.4×10-8 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Lithium Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 85 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.000046 K-1

Lithium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Paramagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility 2.56×10-8
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility 1.78×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility 1.37×10-6

Optical Properties of Lithium

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Lithium

Speed of Sound 6×103 m/s

Lithium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Lithium

Melting Point 453.69 K (180.54 °C)
Boiling Point 1615 K (1342 °C)
Critical Temperature 3223 K
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Lithium

Heat of Fusion 3 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 147 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion -298 J/(kg K)

Lithium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Lithium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Lithium has 2 stable isotope - 6Li, 7Li.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
3Li  
4Li  
5Li  
6Li   7.59%, Stable N/A
7Li   Stable N/A
8Li  
9Li  
10Li  
11Li  
12Li  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7439-93-2
RTECS Number RTECSOJ5540000
DOT Hazard Class 4.3
DOT Numbers 1415
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 2
NFPA Hazards Water Reactive
NFPA Health Rating 3
NFPA Reactivity Rating 2
Autoignition Point 179 °C
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7439-93-2
CID Number CID3028194
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSOJ5540000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide