La Lanthanum – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

57
La
Lanthanum

Lanthanum

Element 57 of Periodic table is Lanthanum with atomic number 57, atomic weight 138.9055. Lanthanum, symbol La, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Silver color. Lanthanum is a lanthanide element. Know everything about Lanthanum Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

57 La - Lanthanum | SchoolMyKids

Lanthanum is a soft, ductile, silvery-white metallic chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57. It tarnishes rapidly when exposed to air and is soft enough to be cut with a knife. It gave its name to the lanthanide series, a group of 15 similar elements between lanthanum and lutetium in the periodic table:it is also sometimes considered the first element of the 6th-period transition metals.

How to Locate Lanthanum on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 57 to find Lanthanum on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Lanthanum on periodic table look for cross section of group N/A and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Lanthanum History

The element Lanthanum was discovered by Carl Gustaf Mosander in year 1839 in Sweden . Lanthanum derived its name from the Greek lanthanein, meaning 'to lie hidden'

Lanthanum Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Lanthanum in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 2×10-7%
Abundance in Sun 2×10-7%
Abundance in Meteorites 2.8e-07
Abundance in Earth's Crust 3.4e-05
Abundance in Oceans 3.4×10-10%
Abundance in Humans N/A

Crystal Structure of Lanthanum

The solid state structure of Lanthanum is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
377.2 377.2 1214.4 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name P63/mmc 57 La Lanthanum - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 194
Crystal Structure Simple Hexagonal

Lanthanum Atomic and Orbital Properties

Lanthanum atoms have 57 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 18, 9, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2D3/2.

Atomic Number 57
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 57
Number of Protons 57
Mass Number 139
Number of Neutrons 82
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 18, 18, 9, 2]
Electron Configuration [Xe] 5d1 6s2
Valence Electrons 5d1 6s2
Oxidation State 1;2;3
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2D3/2

Shell Structure of Lanthanum - Electrons per energy level

57 La Lanthanum - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 10
4 N 2 6 10
5 O 2 6 1
6 P 2

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Lanthanum - neutral Lanthanum atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Lanthanum atom is [Xe] 5d1 6s2. The portion of Lanthanum configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 5d1 6s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Lanthanum

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Lanthanum atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 5d1 6s2

Atomic Structure of Lanthanum

Lanthanum atomic radius is 195 pm, while it's covalent radius is 169 pm.

Atomic Radius

195 pm (1.95 Å)

Atomic Volume 22.600959974 cm3
Covalent Radius 169 pm (1.69 Å)
Van der Waals Radius N/A
Neutron Cross Section 8.98 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Lanthanum

Atomic Spectrum of Lanthanum | SchoolMyKids

Lanthanum Chemical Properties: Lanthanum Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Lanthanum is 48 kJ/mol

Valence 3
Electronegativity 1.1
ElectronAffinity 48 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Lanthanum

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Lanthanum

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 538.1
2 1067
3 1850.3
4 4819
5 5940

Lanthanum Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Lanthanum Physical Properties

Density 6.146 g/cm3
Molar Volume 22.600959974 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 37 GPa
Shear Modulus 14 GPa
Bulk Modulus 28 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.28

Hardness of Lanthanum - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 2.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness 491 MPa
Brinell Hardness 363 MPa

Lanthanum Electrical Properties

Lanthanum is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Lanthanum

Electrical Conductivity 1.6×106 S/m
Resistivity 6.1×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting Point 4.88

Lanthanum Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 13 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.0000121 K-1

Lanthanum Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Paramagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility 1.1×10-8
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility 1.528×10-9
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility 6.761e-05

Optical Properties of Lanthanum

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Lanthanum

Speed of Sound 2475 m/s

Lanthanum Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Lanthanum

Melting Point 1193 K (920 °C)
Boiling Point 3737 K (3464 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point 4.88

Enthalpies of Lanthanum

Heat of Fusion 6.2 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 400 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Lanthanum Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Lanthanum

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Lanthanum has 1 stable isotope - 139La.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
117La  
118La  
119La  
120La  
121La  
122La  
123La  
124La  
125La  
126La  
127La  
128La  
129La  
130La  
131La  
132La  
133La  
134La  
135La  
136La  
137La  
138La   0.09%
139La   99.91% Stable N/A
140La  
141La  
142La  
143La  
144La  
145La  
146La  
147La  
148La  
149La  
150La  
151La  
152La  
153La  
154La  
155La  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7439-91-0
RTECS Number N/A
DOT Hazard Class 4.1
DOT Numbers 3178
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating N/A
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating N/A
NFPA Reactivity Rating N/A
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7439-91-0
CID Number CID23926
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number N/A

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide