Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and exists as a highly toxic pale yellow diatomic gas at standard conditions. As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive:almost all other elements, including some noble gases, form compounds with fluorine.
Read key information and facts about element Fluorine
|Group in Periodic Table||17|
|Group Name||fluorine family|
|Period in Periodic Table||2|
|Block in Periodic Table||p-block|
|Electronic Configuration||[He] 2s2 2p5|
|Melting Point||-219.6 °C|
|Boiling Point||-188.12 °C|
|Electronic Shell Structure||[2, 7]|
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 9 to find Fluorine on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Fluorine on periodic table look for cross section of group 17 and period 2 in the modern periodic table.
The element Fluorine was discovered by André-Marie Ampère in year 1886 in France . Fluorine derived its name from the Latin fluere, meaning 'to flow'
The table below shows the abundance of Fluorine in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||4e-07|
|Abundance in Sun||5e-07|
|Abundance in Meteorites||8.7e-05|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||0.00054|
|Abundance in Oceans||1.3e-06|
|Abundance in Humans||3.7e-05|
The solid state structure of Fluorine is Base Centered Monoclinic.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||C12/c1|
|Space Group Number||15|
|Crystal Structure||Base Centered Monoclinic|
Fluorine atoms have 9 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 7] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P3/2.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||9|
|Number of Protons||9|
|Number of Neutrons||10|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||[2, 7]|
|Electron Configuration||[He] 2s2 2p5|
|Valence Electrons||2s2 2p5|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||2P3/2|
Shell Structure of Fluorine - Electrons per energy level
The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Fluorine atom is [He] 2s2 2p5. The portion of Fluorine configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [He]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 2s2 2p5, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Fluorine atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p5
Fluorine atomic radius is 42 pm, while it's covalent radius is 71 pm.
42 pm (0.42 Å)
|Atomic Volume||11.2018886792 cm3|
|Covalent Radius||71 pm (0.71 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||147 pm|
|Neutron Cross Section||0.0096 σa/barns|
The electron affinity of Fluorine is 328 kJ/mol
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Fluorine
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Refer to below table for Fluorine Physical Properties
|Molar Volume||11.2018886792 cm3|
Fluorine is N/A of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Fluorine
|Thermal Conductivity||0.0277 W/(m K)|
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||N/A|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||N/A|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||N/A|
|Speed of Sound||N/A|
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Fluorine
|Melting Point||53.5 K (-219.6 °C)|
|Boiling Point||85.03 K (-188.12 °C)|
|Critical Temperature||144.13 K|
|Heat of Fusion||0.26 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||3.27 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||N/A|
Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Fluorine has 1 stable isotope - 19F.
|Isotope||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|
|DOT Hazard Class||2.3|
|NFPA Fire Rating||0|
|NFPA Hazards||Oxidizing Agent, Water Reactive|
|NFPA Health Rating||4|
|NFPA Reactivity Rating||4|
List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases
|CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)||CAS7782-41-4|
|Alkali Metals||Alkaline Earth Metals|
|Transition Metals||Post-Transition Metals|