F Fluorine – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

9
F
Fluorine

Fluorine

Element 9 of Periodic table is Fluorine with atomic number 9, atomic weight 18.9984032. Fluorine, symbol F, has a Base Centered Monoclinic structure and Colorless color. Fluorine is a halogens element. Trivial name of Fluorine is halogens*. Know everything about Fluorine Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

9 F - Fluorine | SchoolMyKids

Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and exists as a highly toxic pale yellow diatomic gas at standard conditions. As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive:almost all other elements, including some noble gases, form compounds with fluorine.

How to Locate Fluorine on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 9 to find Fluorine on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Fluorine on periodic table look for cross section of group 17 and period 2 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Fluorine History

The element Fluorine was discovered by André-Marie Ampère in year 1886 in France . Fluorine derived its name from the Latin fluere, meaning 'to flow'

Fluorine Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Fluorine in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 4e-07
Abundance in Sun 5e-07
Abundance in Meteorites 8.7e-05
Abundance in Earth's Crust 0.00054
Abundance in Oceans 1.3e-06
Abundance in Humans 3.7e-05

Crystal Structure of Fluorine

The solid state structure of Fluorine is Base Centered Monoclinic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
550 328 728 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name C12/c1 9 F Fluorine - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 15
Crystal Structure Base Centered Monoclinic

Fluorine Atomic and Orbital Properties

Fluorine atoms have 9 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 7] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P3/2.

Atomic Number 9
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 9
Number of Protons 9
Mass Number 19
Number of Neutrons 10
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 7]
Electron Configuration [He] 2s2 2p5
Valence Electrons 2s2 2p5
Oxidation State -1
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P3/2

Shell Structure of Fluorine - Electrons per energy level

9 F Fluorine - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 5

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Fluorine - neutral Fluorine atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Fluorine atom is [He] 2s2 2p5. The portion of Fluorine configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [He]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 2s2 2p5, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Fluorine

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Fluorine atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p5

Atomic Structure of Fluorine

Fluorine atomic radius is 42 pm, while it's covalent radius is 71 pm.

Atomic Radius

42 pm (0.42 Å)

Atomic Volume 11.2018886792 cm3
Covalent Radius 71 pm (0.71 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 147 pm
Neutron Cross Section 0.0096 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Fluorine

Atomic Spectrum of Fluorine | SchoolMyKids

Fluorine Chemical Properties: Fluorine Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Fluorine is 328 kJ/mol

Valence 1
Electronegativity 3.98
ElectronAffinity 328 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Fluorine

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Fluorine

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 1681
2 3374.2
3 6050.4
4 8407.7
5 11022.7
6 15164.1
7 17868
8 92038.1
9 106434.3

Fluorine Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Fluorine Physical Properties

Density 1.696 g/l
Molar Volume 11.2018886792 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus N/A
Shear Modulus N/A
Bulk Modulus N/A
Poisson Ratio N/A

Hardness of Fluorine - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness N/A
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness N/A

Fluorine Electrical Properties

Fluorine is N/A of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Fluorine

Electrical Conductivity N/A
Resistivity N/A
Superconducting Point N/A

Fluorine Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 0.0277 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion N/A

Fluorine Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type N/A
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility N/A
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility N/A
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility N/A

Optical Properties of Fluorine

Refractive Index 1.000195

Acoustic Properties of Fluorine

Speed of Sound N/A

Fluorine Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Fluorine

Melting Point 53.5 K (-219.6 °C)
Boiling Point 85.03 K (-188.12 °C)
Critical Temperature 144.13 K
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Fluorine

Heat of Fusion 0.26 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 3.27 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Fluorine Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Fluorine

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Fluorine has 1 stable isotope - 19F.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
14F  
15F  
16F  
17F  
18F  
19F   100% Stable N/A
20F  
21F  
22F  
23F  
24F  
25F  
26F  
27F  
28F  
29F  
30F  
31F  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7782-41-4
RTECS Number RTECSLM6475000
DOT Hazard Class 2.3
DOT Numbers 9192
EU Number EU231-954-8
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA Hazards Oxidizing Agent, Water Reactive
NFPA Health Rating 4
NFPA Reactivity Rating 4
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7782-41-4
CID Number CID24524
Gmelin Number Gmelin16281
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSLM6475000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide