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Periodic Table Element Comparison: Compare Elements - Magnesium vs Calcium

Compare Magnesium and Calcium

Compare Magnesium and Calcium on the basis of their properties, attributes and periodic table facts. Compare elements on more than 90 properties. All the elements of similar categories show a lot of similarities and differences in their chemical, atomic, physical properties and uses. These similarities and dissimilarities should be known while we study periodic table elements. You can study the detailed comparison between Magnesium vs Calcium with most reliable information about their properties, attributes, facts, uses etc. You can compare Mg vs Ca on more than 90 properties like electronegativity , oxidation state, atomic shells, orbital structure, Electronaffinity, physical states, electrical conductivity and many more.

Facts

Magnesium
12
Mg
24.305
Solid
Silver
alkaline earth metal
2
beryllium family 
3
s
[Ne] 3s2
650 °C
1090 °C
2, 8, 2
CAS7439-95-4
Neighborhood Elements of Magnesium
Calcium
20
Ca
40.078
Solid
Silver
alkaline earth metal
2
beryllium family 
4
s
[Ar] 4s2
842 °C
1484 °C
2, 8, 8, 2
CAS7440-70-2
Neighborhood Elements of Calcium

History

History
The element Magnesium was discovered by Joseph Black in year 1755 in United Kingdom. Magnesium derived its name from from Magnesia, a district of Eastern Thessaly in Greece
The element Calcium was discovered by Humphry Davy in year 1808 in United Kingdom. Calcium derived its name derived its name from from the Latin calx, meaning 'lime'

Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
0.0006
0.0007
0.12
0.029
0.0013
0.00027
7e-05
7e-05
0.011
0.05
4.2e-06
0.014

Crystal Structure and Atomic Structure

145 pm
13.984464902186 cm3
130 pm
173 pm
0.063
magnesium Spectrum
320.94, 320.94, 521.08 pm
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
P63/mmc
194

Simple Hexagonal

magnesium Crystal Structure
194 pm
25.856774193548 cm3
174 pm
N/A
0.43
calcium Spectrum
558.84, 558.84, 558.84 pm
π/2, π/2, π/2
Fm_ 3m
225

Face Centered Cubic

calcium Crystal Structure

Atomic and Orbital Properties

Atomic Number
Number of Electrons (with no charge)
Number of Protons
Mass Number
Number of Neutrons
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)
Electron Configuration
Valence Electrons
Oxidation State
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)
Shell structure
12
12
12
24.305
12.305
2, 8, 2
[Ne] 3s2
3s2
 1;2
1S0
magnesium Shells
20
20
20
40.078
20.078
2, 8, 8, 2
[Ar] 4s2
4s2
 1;2
1S0
calcium Shells

Isotopes - Nuclear Properties

Isotopes
Naturally occurring stable isotopes:
24Mg, 25Mg, 26Mg.
Naturally occurring stable isotopes:
40Ca, 42Ca, 43Ca, 44Ca, 46Ca.

Chemical Properties: Ionization Energies and electron affinity

2
1.31
0 kJ/mol
737.7, 1450.7, 7732.7, 10542.5, 13630, 18020, 21711, 25661, 31653, 35458 kJ/mol
2
1
2.37 kJ/mol
589.8, 1145.4, 4912.4, 6491, 8153, 10496, 12270, 14206, 18191, 20385, 57110 kJ/mol

Physical Properties

1.738 g/cm3
13.984464902186

 

45 GPa
17 GPa
45 GPa
0.29


 

2.5 MPa
N/A
260 MPa

 

2.3×107 S/m
4.4×10-8 m Ω
N/A

 

160 W/(m K)
8.2×10-6 K-1

 

Paramagnetic
N/A
6.9×10-9
1.68×10-10
1.2e-05

 

N/A

 

4602 m/s
1.55 g/cm3
25.856774193548

 

20 GPa
7.4 GPa
17 GPa
0.31


 

1.75 MPa
N/A
167 MPa

 

2.9×107 S/m
3.4×10-8 m Ω
N/A

 

200 W/(m K)
0.0000223 K-1

 

Paramagnetic
N/A
1.38×10-8
5.531×10-10
2.139e-05

 

N/A

 

3810 m/s

Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

650 °C
1090 °C
N/A
N/A

 

8.7 kJ/mol
128 kJ/mol
-668 J/(kg K)
842 °C
1484 °C
N/A
N/A

 

8.54 kJ/mol
155 kJ/mol
-990 J/(kg K)

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS7439-95-4
N/A
4.1
2950
N/A
1
N/A
0
1

 

472 °C
500 °C
CAS7440-70-2
N/A
4.2
1855
N/A
1
Water Reactive
3
2

 

N/A
N/A

Compare With Other Elements