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Periodic Table Element Comparison: Compare Elements - Germanium vs Thulium

Compare Germanium and Thulium

Compare Germanium and Thulium on the basis of their properties, attributes and periodic table facts. Compare elements on more than 90 properties. All the elements of similar categories show a lot of similarities and differences in their chemical, atomic, physical properties and uses. These similarities and dissimilarities should be known while we study periodic table elements. You can study the detailed comparison between Germanium vs Thulium with most reliable information about their properties, attributes, facts, uses etc. You can compare Ge vs Tm on more than 90 properties like electronegativity , oxidation state, atomic shells, orbital structure, Electronaffinity, physical states, electrical conductivity and many more.

Facts

Germanium
32
Ge
72.64
Solid
Gray
metalloid
14
carbon family 
4
p
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
938.3 °C
2820 °C
2, 8, 18, 4
CAS7440-56-4
Neighborhood Elements of Germanium
Thulium
69
Tm
168.93421
Solid
Silver
lanthanide
N/A
 
6
f
[Xe] 4f13 6s2
1545 °C
1950 °C
2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2
CAS7440-30-4
Neighborhood Elements of Thulium

History

History
The element Germanium was discovered by Clemens Winkler in year 1886 in Germany. Germanium derived its name from from Germania, the Latin name for Germany
The element Thulium was discovered by Per Teodor Cleve in year 1879 in Sweden. Thulium derived its name derived its name from from Thule, the ancient name for Scandinavia

Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
2e-07
2e-07
2.1e-05
1.4e-06
6×10-9%
N/A
1×10-8%
2×10-8%
2.9×10-6%
4.5e-07
2×10-11%
N/A

Crystal Structure and Atomic Structure

125 pm
13.646439977456 cm3
122 pm
N/A
2.2
germanium Spectrum
565.75, 565.75, 565.75 pm
π/2, π/2, π/2
Fm_ 3m
225

Face Centered Cubic

germanium Crystal Structure
222 pm
18.124043557558 cm3
N/A
N/A
105
thulium Spectrum
353.75, 353.75, 555.46 pm
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
P63/mmc
194

Simple Hexagonal

thulium Crystal Structure

Atomic and Orbital Properties

Atomic Number
Number of Electrons (with no charge)
Number of Protons
Mass Number
Number of Neutrons
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)
Electron Configuration
Valence Electrons
Oxidation State
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)
Shell structure
32
32
32
72.64
40.64
2, 8, 18, 4
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
4s2 4p2
-4;-3;-2;-1  1;2;3;4
3P0
germanium Shells
69
69
69
168.93421
99.93421
2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2
[Xe] 4f13 6s2
4f13 6s2
 2;3
2F7/2
thulium Shells

Isotopes - Nuclear Properties

Isotopes
Naturally occurring stable isotopes:
70Ge, 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge.
Naturally occurring stable isotopes:
169Tm.

Chemical Properties: Ionization Energies and electron affinity

4
2.01
119 kJ/mol
762, 1537.5, 3302.1, 4411, 9020 kJ/mol
3
1.25
50 kJ/mol
596.7, 1160, 2285, 4120 kJ/mol

Physical Properties

5.323 g/cm3
13.646439977456

 

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A


 

6 MPa
N/A
N/A

 

2×103 S/m
0.0005 m Ω
N/A

 

60 W/(m K)
6×10-6 K-1

 

Diamagnetic
N/A
-1.5×10-9
-1.09×10-10
-7.98×10-6

 

N/A

 

5.4×103 m/s
9.321 g/cm3
18.124043557558

 

74 GPa
31 GPa
45 GPa
0.21


 

N/A
520 MPa
471 MPa

 

1.4×106 S/m
7×10-7 m Ω
N/A

 

17 W/(m K)
0.0000133 K-1

 

Paramagnetic
25 K
1.99×10-6
3.36179×10-7
0.0185488

 

N/A

 

N/A

Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

938.3 °C
2820 °C
N/A
N/A

 

31.8 kJ/mol
334 kJ/mol
-536 J/(kg K)
1545 °C
1950 °C
N/A
N/A

 

16.8 kJ/mol
250 kJ/mol
N/A

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS7440-56-4
RTECSLY5200000
4.1
3089
N/A
0
N/A
1
0

 

N/A
N/A
CAS7440-30-4
N/A
4.1
3089
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

 

N/A
N/A