Cd Cadmium – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

48
Cd
Cadmium

Cadmium

Element 48 of Periodic table is Cadmium with atomic number 48, atomic weight 112.411. Cadmium, symbol Cd, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Silver color. Cadmium is a transition metal element. Trivial name of Cadmium is volatile metals. Know everything about Cadmium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

48 Cd - Cadmium | SchoolMyKids

Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48. This soft, bluish-white metal is chemically similar to the two other stable metals in group 12, zinc and mercury. Like zinc, it prefers oxidation state +2 in most of its compounds and like mercury it shows a low melting point compared to transition metals.

How to Locate Cadmium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 48 to find Cadmium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Cadmium on periodic table look for cross section of group 12 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Cadmium History

The element Cadmium was discovered by Karl Samuel Leberecht Hermann in year 1817 in Germany . Cadmium derived its name from the New Latin cadmia, from King Kadmos

Cadmium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Cadmium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 2×10-7%
Abundance in Sun 6×10-7%
Abundance in Meteorites 4.4e-07
Abundance in Earth's Crust 1.5e-07
Abundance in Oceans 5×10-9%
Abundance in Humans 7e-07

Crystal Structure of Cadmium

The solid state structure of Cadmium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
297.94 297.94 561.86 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name P63/mmc 48 Cd Cadmium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 194
Crystal Structure Simple Hexagonal

Cadmium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Cadmium atoms have 48 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 18, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0.

Atomic Number 48
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 48
Number of Protons 48
Mass Number 112
Number of Neutrons 64
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 18, 18, 2]
Electron Configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s2
Valence Electrons 4d10 5s2
Oxidation State -2
1;2
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0

Shell Structure of Cadmium - Electrons per energy level

48 Cd Cadmium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 10
4 N 2 6 10
5 O 2

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Cadmium - neutral Cadmium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Cadmium atom is [Kr] 4d10 5s2. The portion of Cadmium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4d10 5s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Cadmium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Cadmium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2

Atomic Structure of Cadmium

Cadmium atomic radius is 161 pm, while it's covalent radius is 148 pm.

Atomic Radius

161 pm (1.61 Å)

Atomic Volume 12.9954913295 cm3
Covalent Radius 148 pm (1.48 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 158 pm
Neutron Cross Section 2450 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Cadmium

Atomic Spectrum of Cadmium | SchoolMyKids

Cadmium Chemical Properties: Cadmium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Cadmium is 0 kJ/mol

Valence 2
Electronegativity 1.69
ElectronAffinity 0 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Cadmium

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Cadmium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 867.8
2 1631.4
3 3616

Cadmium Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Cadmium Physical Properties

Density 8.65 g/cm3
Molar Volume 12.9954913295 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 50 GPa
Shear Modulus 19 GPa
Bulk Modulus 42 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.3

Hardness of Cadmium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 2 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness 203 MPa

Cadmium Electrical Properties

Cadmium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Cadmium

Electrical Conductivity 1.4×107 S/m
Resistivity 7×10-8 m Ω
Superconducting Point 0.517

Cadmium Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 97 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.0000308 K-1

Cadmium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Diamagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility -2.3×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -2.59×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -1.99e-05

Optical Properties of Cadmium

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Cadmium

Speed of Sound 2310 m/s

Cadmium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Cadmium

Melting Point 594.22 K (321.07 °C)
Boiling Point 1040 K (767 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point 0.517

Enthalpies of Cadmium

Heat of Fusion 6.3 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 100 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Cadmium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Cadmium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Cadmium has 6 stable isotope - 106Cd, 108Cd, 110Cd, 111Cd, 112Cd, 114Cd.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
95Cd  
96Cd  
97Cd  
98Cd  
99Cd  
100Cd  
101Cd  
102Cd  
103Cd  
104Cd  
105Cd  
106Cd   1.25% Stable N/A
107Cd  
108Cd   0.89% Stable N/A
109Cd  
110Cd   12.49% Stable N/A
111Cd   12.8% Stable N/A
112Cd   24.13% Stable N/A
113Cd   12.22%
114Cd   28.73% Stable N/A
115Cd  
116Cd   7.49%
117Cd  
118Cd  
119Cd  
120Cd  
121Cd  
122Cd  
123Cd  
124Cd  
125Cd  
126Cd  
127Cd  
128Cd  
129Cd  
130Cd  
131Cd  
132Cd  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-43-9
RTECS Number RTECSEU9800000
DOT Hazard Class 6.1
DOT Numbers 2570
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 2
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 2
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition Point 250 °C
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-43-9
CID Number CID23973
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSEU9800000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide