Br Bromine – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

35
Br
Bromine

Bromine

Element 35 of Periodic table is Bromine with atomic number 35, atomic weight 79.904. Bromine, symbol Br, has a Base Centered Orthorhombic structure and Red color. Bromine is a halogens element. Trivial name of Bromine is halogens*. Know everything about Bromine Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

35 Br - Bromine | SchoolMyKids

Bromine (from Ancient Greek:βρῶμος, brómos, meaning "stench") is a chemical element with symbol Br, and atomic number 35. It is a halogen. The element was isolated independently by two chemists, Carl Jacob Löwig and Antoine Jerome Balard, in 1825–1826.

How to Locate Bromine on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 35 to find Bromine on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Bromine on periodic table look for cross section of group 17 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Bromine History

The element Bromine was discovered by Antoine Jérôme Balard in year 1826 in France . Bromine derived its name from the Greek bromos, meaning 'stench'

Bromine Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Bromine in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 7×10-7%
Abundance in Sun N/A
Abundance in Meteorites 1.2e-06
Abundance in Earth's Crust 3e-06
Abundance in Oceans 6.7e-05
Abundance in Humans 2.9e-06

Crystal Structure of Bromine

The solid state structure of Bromine is Base Centered Orthorhombic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
672.65 464.51 870.23 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name Cmca 35 Br Bromine - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 64
Crystal Structure Base Centered Orthorhombic

Bromine Atomic and Orbital Properties

Bromine atoms have 35 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 7] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P3/2.

Atomic Number 35
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 35
Number of Protons 35
Mass Number 80
Number of Neutrons 45
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 18, 7]
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p5
Valence Electrons 4s2 4p5
Oxidation State -1
1;3;4;5;7
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P3/2

Shell Structure of Bromine - Electrons per energy level

35 Br Bromine - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 10
4 N 2 5

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Bromine - neutral Bromine atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Bromine atom is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p5. The portion of Bromine configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d10 4s2 4p5, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Bromine

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Bromine atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p5

Atomic Structure of Bromine

Bromine atomic radius is 94 pm, while it's covalent radius is 114 pm.

Atomic Radius

94 pm (0.94 Å)

Atomic Volume 25.6102564103 cm3
Covalent Radius 114 pm (1.14 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 185 pm
Neutron Cross Section 6.8 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Bromine

Atomic Spectrum of Bromine | SchoolMyKids

Bromine Chemical Properties: Bromine Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Bromine is 324.6 kJ/mol

Valence 5
Electronegativity 2.96
ElectronAffinity 324.6 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Bromine

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Bromine

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 1139.9
2 2103
3 3470
4 4560
5 5760
6 8550
7 9940
8 1.86×104

Bromine Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Bromine Physical Properties

Density 3.12 g/cm3
Molar Volume 25.6102564103 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus N/A
Shear Modulus N/A
Bulk Modulus 1.9 GPa
Poisson Ratio N/A

Hardness of Bromine - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness N/A
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness N/A

Bromine Electrical Properties

Bromine is Insulator of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Bromine

Electrical Conductivity 1×10-10 S/m
Resistivity 1×1010 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Bromine Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 0.12 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion N/A

Bromine Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Diamagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility -4.9×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -7.83×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -1.53e-05

Optical Properties of Bromine

Refractive Index 1.001132

Acoustic Properties of Bromine

Speed of Sound N/A

Bromine Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Bromine

Melting Point 265.8 K (-7.3 °C)
Boiling Point 332 K (59 °C)
Critical Temperature 588 K
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Bromine

Heat of Fusion 5.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 14.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Bromine Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Bromine

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Bromine has 2 stable isotope - 79Br, 81Br.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
67Br  
68Br  
69Br  
70Br  
71Br  
72Br  
73Br  
74Br  
75Br  
76Br  
77Br  
78Br  
79Br   50.69% Stable N/A
80Br  
81Br   49.31% Stable N/A
82Br  
83Br  
84Br  
85Br  
86Br  
87Br  
88Br  
89Br  
90Br  
91Br  
92Br  
93Br  
94Br  
95Br  
96Br  
97Br  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7726-95-6
RTECS Number RTECSEF9100000
DOT Hazard Class 8
DOT Numbers 1744
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA Hazards Oxidizing Agent
NFPA Health Rating 3
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint -18 °C

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7726-95-6
CID Number CID24408
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSEF9100000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide