Bi Bismuth – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

83
Bi
Bismuth

Bismuth

Element 83 of Periodic table is Bismuth with atomic number 83, atomic weight 208.98038. Bismuth, symbol Bi, has a Base Centered Monoclinic structure and Gray color. Bismuth is a post-transition metal element. Trivial name of Bismuth is pentels, pnictogens*. Know everything about Bismuth Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

83 Bi - Bismuth | SchoolMyKids

Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83. Bismuth, a pentavalent post-transition metal, chemically resembles arsenic and antimony. Elemental bismuth may occur naturally, although its sulfide and oxide form important commercial ores.

How to Locate Bismuth on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 83 to find Bismuth on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Bismuth on periodic table look for cross section of group 15 and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Bismuth History

The element Bismuth was discovered by Claude François Geoffroy in year 1400 in unknown place . Bismuth derived its name from German word, now obsolete

Bismuth Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Bismuth in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 7×10-8%
Abundance in Sun 1×10-6%
Abundance in Meteorites 6.9×10-6%
Abundance in Earth's Crust 2.5×10-6%
Abundance in Oceans 2×10-9%
Abundance in Humans N/A

Crystal Structure of Bismuth

The solid state structure of Bismuth is Base Centered Monoclinic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
667.4 611.7 330.4 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 1.925622 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name C12/m1 83 Bi Bismuth - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 12
Crystal Structure Base Centered Monoclinic

Bismuth Atomic and Orbital Properties

Bismuth atoms have 83 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 4S3/2.

Atomic Number 83
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 83
Number of Protons 83
Mass Number 209
Number of Neutrons 126
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5]
Electron Configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
Valence Electrons 6s2 6p3
Oxidation State -3;-2;-1
1;2;3;4;5
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 4S3/2

Shell Structure of Bismuth - Electrons per energy level

83 Bi Bismuth - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 10
4 N 2 6 10 14
5 O 2 6 10
6 P 2 3

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Bismuth - neutral Bismuth atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Bismuth atom is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3. The portion of Bismuth configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Bismuth

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Bismuth atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3

Atomic Structure of Bismuth

Bismuth atomic radius is 143 pm, while it's covalent radius is 146 pm.

Atomic Radius

143 pm (1.43 Å)

Atomic Volume 21.3681370143 cm3
Covalent Radius 146 pm (1.46 Å)
Van der Waals Radius N/A
Neutron Cross Section 0.034 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Bismuth

Atomic Spectrum of Bismuth | SchoolMyKids

Bismuth Chemical Properties: Bismuth Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Bismuth is 91.2 kJ/mol

Valence 5
Electronegativity 2.02
ElectronAffinity 91.2 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Bismuth

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Bismuth

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 703
2 1610
3 2466
4 4370
5 5.4×103
6 8520

Bismuth Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Bismuth Physical Properties

Density 9.78 g/cm3
Molar Volume 21.3681370143 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 32 GPa
Shear Modulus 12 GPa
Bulk Modulus 31 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.33

Hardness of Bismuth - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 2.25 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness 94.2 MPa

Bismuth Electrical Properties

Bismuth is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Bismuth

Electrical Conductivity 7.7×105 S/m
Resistivity 1.3×10-6 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Bismuth Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 8 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.0000134 K-1

Bismuth Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Diamagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility -1.7×10-8
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -3.6×10-9
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -0.00017

Optical Properties of Bismuth

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Bismuth

Speed of Sound 1790 m/s

Bismuth Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Bismuth

Melting Point 544.4 K (271.3 °C)
Boiling Point 1837 K (1564 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Bismuth

Heat of Fusion 10.9 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 160 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Bismuth Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Bismuth

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Bismuth has 1 stable isotope - None.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
184Bi  
185Bi  
186Bi  
187Bi  
188Bi  
189Bi  
190Bi  
191Bi  
192Bi  
193Bi  
194Bi  
195Bi  
196Bi  
197Bi  
198Bi  
199Bi  
200Bi  
201Bi  
202Bi  
203Bi  
204Bi  
205Bi  
206Bi  
207Bi  
208Bi  
209Bi   100%
210Bi  
211Bi  
212Bi  
213Bi  
214Bi  
215Bi  
216Bi  
217Bi  
218Bi  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-69-9
RTECS Number RTECSEB2600000
DOT Hazard Class 6.1
DOT Numbers 3080
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating N/A
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating N/A
NFPA Reactivity Rating N/A
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-69-9
CID Number CID5359367
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSEB2600000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide