Al Aluminium – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

13
Al
Aluminium

Aluminium

Element 13 of Periodic table is Aluminium with atomic number 13, atomic weight 26.981538. Aluminium, symbol Al, has a Face Centered Cubic structure and Silver color. Aluminium is a post-transition metal element. Trivial name of Aluminium is triels, icosagens. Know everything about Aluminium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

13 Al - Aluminium | SchoolMyKids

Aluminium (or aluminum; see different endings) is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic, ductile metal. Aluminium is the third most abundant element (after oxygen and silicon), and the most abundant metal, in the Earth's crust.

How to Locate Aluminium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 13 to find Aluminium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Aluminium on periodic table look for cross section of group 13 and period 3 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Aluminium History

The element Aluminium was discovered by None in year 1825 in Denmark . Aluminium derived its name from alumina, a compound (originally aluminum)

Aluminium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Aluminium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 5e-05
Abundance in Sun 6e-05
Abundance in Meteorites 0.0091
Abundance in Earth's Crust 0.081
Abundance in Oceans 5×10-7%
Abundance in Humans 9e-07

Crystal Structure of Aluminium

The solid state structure of Aluminium is Face Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
404.95 404.95 404.95 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name Fm_ 3m 13 Al Aluminium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 225
Crystal Structure Face Centered Cubic

Aluminium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Aluminium atoms have 13 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 3] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P1/2.

Atomic Number 13
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 13
Number of Protons 13
Mass Number 27
Number of Neutrons 14
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 3]
Electron Configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p1
Valence Electrons 3s2 3p1
Oxidation State -2;-1
1;2;3
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P1/2

Shell Structure of Aluminium - Electrons per energy level

13 Al Aluminium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 1

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Aluminium - neutral Aluminium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Aluminium atom is [Ne] 3s2 3p1. The portion of Aluminium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ne]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3s2 3p1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Aluminium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Aluminium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1

Atomic Structure of Aluminium

Aluminium atomic radius is 118 pm, while it's covalent radius is 118 pm.

Atomic Radius

118 pm (1.18 Å)

Atomic Volume 9.99316222222 cm3
Covalent Radius 118 pm (1.18 Å)
Van der Waals Radius N/A
Neutron Cross Section 0.233 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Aluminium

Atomic Spectrum of Aluminium | SchoolMyKids

Aluminium Chemical Properties: Aluminium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Aluminium is 42.5 kJ/mol

Valence 3
Electronegativity 1.61
ElectronAffinity 42.5 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Aluminium

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Aluminium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 577.5
2 1816.7
3 2744.8
4 11577
5 14842
6 18379
7 23326
8 27465
9 31853
10 38473

Aluminium Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Aluminium Physical Properties

Density 2.7 g/cm3
Molar Volume 9.99316222222 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 70 GPa
Shear Modulus 26 GPa
Bulk Modulus 76 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.35

Hardness of Aluminium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 2.75 MPa
Vickers Hardness 167 MPa
Brinell Hardness 245 MPa

Aluminium Electrical Properties

Aluminium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Aluminium

Electrical Conductivity 3.8×107 S/m
Resistivity 2.6×10-8 m Ω
Superconducting Point 1.175

Aluminium Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 235 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.0000231 K-1

Aluminium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Paramagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility 7.8×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility 2.1×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility 2.11e-05

Optical Properties of Aluminium

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Aluminium

Speed of Sound 5.1×103 m/s

Aluminium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Aluminium

Melting Point 933.47 K (660.32 °C)
Boiling Point 2792 K (2519 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point 1.175

Enthalpies of Aluminium

Heat of Fusion 10.7 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 293 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Aluminium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Aluminium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Aluminium has 1 stable isotope - 27Al.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
21Al  
22Al  
23Al  
24Al  
25Al  
26Al  
27Al   100% Stable N/A
28Al  
29Al  
30Al  
31Al  
32Al  
33Al  
34Al  
35Al  
36Al  
37Al  
38Al  
39Al  
40Al  
41Al  
42Al  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7429-90-5
RTECS Number RTECSBD0330000
DOT Hazard Class 4.3
DOT Numbers 1396
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 1
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 0
NFPA Reactivity Rating 1
Autoignition Point 400 °C
Flashpoint 645 °C

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7429-90-5
CID Number CID5359268
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSBD0330000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide