Ag Silver – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

47
Ag
Silver

Silver

Element 47 of Periodic table is Silver with atomic number 47, atomic weight 107.8682. Silver, symbol Ag, has a Face Centered Cubic structure and Silver color. Silver is a transition metal element. Trivial name of Silver is coinage metals. Know everything about Silver Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

47 Ag - Silver | SchoolMyKids

Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (Greek:άργυρος árguros, Latin:argentum, both from the Indo-European root *h₂erǵ- for "grey" or "shining") and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it possesses the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and reflectivity of any metal. The metal occurs naturally in its pure, free form (native silver), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite.

How to Locate Silver on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 47 to find Silver on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Silver on periodic table look for cross section of group 11 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Silver History

The element Silver was discovered by unknown in year 3000 BC in unknown place . Silver derived its name from English word (argentum in Latin)

Silver Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Silver in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 6×10-8%
Abundance in Sun 1×10-7%
Abundance in Meteorites 1.4e-07
Abundance in Earth's Crust 7.9×10-6%
Abundance in Oceans 1×10-8%
Abundance in Humans N/A

Crystal Structure of Silver

The solid state structure of Silver is Face Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
408.53 408.53 408.53 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name Fm_ 3m 47 Ag Silver - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 225
Crystal Structure Face Centered Cubic

Silver Atomic and Orbital Properties

Silver atoms have 47 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 18, 1] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2.

Atomic Number 47
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 47
Number of Protons 47
Mass Number 108
Number of Neutrons 61
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 18, 18, 1]
Electron Configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s1
Valence Electrons 4d10 5s1
Oxidation State -2;-1
1;2;3;4
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2

Shell Structure of Silver - Electrons per energy level

47 Ag Silver - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 10
4 N 2 6 10
5 O 1

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Silver - neutral Silver atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Silver atom is [Kr] 4d10 5s1. The portion of Silver configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4d10 5s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Silver

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Silver atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s1

Atomic Structure of Silver

Silver atomic radius is 165 pm, while it's covalent radius is 153 pm.

Atomic Radius

165 pm (1.65 Å)

Atomic Volume 10.2829551954 cm3
Covalent Radius 153 pm (1.53 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 172 pm
Neutron Cross Section 63.6 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Silver

Atomic Spectrum of Silver | SchoolMyKids

Silver Chemical Properties: Silver Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Silver is 125.6 kJ/mol

Valence 1
Electronegativity 1.93
ElectronAffinity 125.6 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Silver

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Silver

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 731
2 2070
3 3361

Silver Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Silver Physical Properties

Density 10.49 g/cm3
Molar Volume 10.2829551954 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 83 GPa
Shear Modulus 30 GPa
Bulk Modulus 100 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.37

Hardness of Silver - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 2.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness 251 MPa
Brinell Hardness 24.5 MPa

Silver Electrical Properties

Silver is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Silver

Electrical Conductivity 6.2×107 S/m
Resistivity 1.6×10-8 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Silver Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 430 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.0000189 K-1

Silver Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Diamagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility -2.27×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -2.45×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -2.38e-05

Optical Properties of Silver

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Silver

Speed of Sound 2.6×103 m/s

Silver Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Silver

Melting Point 1234.93 K (961.78 °C)
Boiling Point 2435 K (2162 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Silver

Heat of Fusion 11.3 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 255 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Silver Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Silver

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Silver has 2 stable isotope - 107Ag, 109Ag.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
93Ag  
94Ag  
95Ag  
96Ag  
97Ag  
98Ag  
99Ag  
100Ag  
101Ag  
102Ag  
103Ag  
104Ag  
105Ag  
106Ag  
107Ag   51.839% Stable N/A
108Ag  
109Ag   48.161% Stable N/A
110Ag  
111Ag  
112Ag  
113Ag  
114Ag  
115Ag  
116Ag  
117Ag  
118Ag  
119Ag  
120Ag  
121Ag  
122Ag  
123Ag  
124Ag  
125Ag  
126Ag  
127Ag  
128Ag  
129Ag  
130Ag  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-22-4
RTECS Number RTECSVW3500000
DOT Hazard Class N/A
DOT Numbers N/A
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 1
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-22-4
CID Number CID23954
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSVW3500000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide